Jumaat, 19 November 2010

1.0 Teaching Volume of Liquid Year 2

Introduction

Volume of liquid is one of the topic in Mathematics for Year 2 pupils in primary school. In the topics volume of liquid, pupils will be able to learn use vocabulary related to volume of practical contexts, compare the volume of liquid by direct comparison, measure volume of liquid using uniform standards unit and standards unit.

Mathematics teacher find out that Year 2 pupils will have a misconception in the topic   volume of liquid:
Misconception 1: Mathematical language – confusion between liquid volume and capacity. Liquid volume is measured in millilitres and litres and solid volume in cubic centimetres and metres.Only containers have capacity. The capacity of a container is the maximum volume of liquid that it can hold. Hence capacity is measured in the same units as liquid volume. Thus, a wine glass may have a capacity to hold 250ml, but the liquid volume of the wine may only be 150ml.
Misconception 2: Conservation of liquid. Pupils often believe that the amount of liquid has changed when a set amount has been poured from one container to another of a different size. They believe that there is more liquid in the one that has the highest level e.g. the left hand containers in figures b and c.

Piaget would argue that children are not able to understand this notion of conservation until they have reached the Concrete operational stage of development (7 - 11 years).
In this situation, teacher need to think and creates different teaching and learning activities with different teaching aids to help pupils understand and able to measure and compare volume of liquid using uniform standards unit and standards unit.

2.0 Tutorial of How to Measure Volume of Liquid

video

3.0 Measure and Compare Volume of Liquid

Please refer to teaching activity 3.1 and 3.2 how to measure and compare Volume of Liquid using non - standard unit and standard unit.

3.1 Topic 1: Measure and Compare Volume of Liquid Using Non-Standard Units

Learning outcomes:
By the end of the lesson, pupils will be able to measure and compare volume of liquids  using non-standard units .

Prior knowledge:
Pupils had learnt how to compare objects: more or less, many or a few, high or low during their previous lesson .
Teaching aids:
Different sizes and shapes of containers (jug, beaker, basin, teapot), a pail of water, cups
Vocabulary:
more, less, empty, half full, full, more than half full, less than half full.
Teaching and learning activities:
1. Divide pupils in four groups. Each group has high achiever and low achiever pupils. 
Pupils do work in their cooperative learning.
2. Appoint one pupil as a group leader to record the group result in the table.
3. Give each group 4 set of containers of different sizes and shapes (jug, beaker,
basin, teapot), a pail of water, and a small cup as the measurement tool.
4. Pupils compare volume of liquid in different containers as below:
a.       beaker and basin
b.      teapot and jug
5. Each group will record the number of cup needed to fill the water in every 
containers into the table form given.
Containers
Volume of liquid ( cupful)
       Result (more / less)
a. Beaker


    Basin


b. Teapot


    Jug




6. Pupils do exercises according for high achiever and low achiever pupils.
Exercise 1: high achiever pupils


continue of exercise 1......


Exercise 2: low achiever pupils



Conclusion:

1.      Different containers has different capacity. Only containers have capacity. The capacity of a container is the maximum volume of liquid that it can hold.
2.      The volume of liquid will be determined based on the containers used.
3.      The volume of liquid in the different containers that have different sizes and shapes can be measure and compare by using a small cup as the measurement tool.

3.2 Topic 2: Measure and Compare Volume of Liquid Using Standard Units

Learning Outcomes:
By the end of the lesson, pupils will be able to measure and compare volume of liquids by using standard units .

Prior Knowledge:
Pupils had learnt that the content of water will be determined based on their containers.

Teaching aids:
Different sizes of containers (apple juice bottle, oil bottle, pail, teapot , jug), a pail of water, measuring cylinders

Vocabulary:
more, less, empty, half full, full, measuring cylinder

Teaching and learning activities:
1.Teacher demo the ways to measure volume of liquid using measuring cylinder. Teacher shows way to read
   and record measurement from measuring cylinders correctly.
2.Two basic rules have to be considered for taking a correct reading from a measuring cylinder:
a.Your eye should be in line with the lower level of the surface of the water (meniscus);
b.The measuring cylinder has to be placed on a level surface and not be tilted, as in the illustrated example!




3.Teacher guides pupils use measuring cylinder to measure the volumes of liquid. They read the scales to the
   nearest litre or mililitre
4.Teacher introduce the pupils that :
*  1 liter = 1000 milliliter
* 1 liter x 1000 milliliter = 1000 milliliter
5. Divide pupils in four groups. Each group has high achiever and low achiever pupils. Pupils do work in their
    cooperative learning.
6. Appoint one student as a group leader to record the group result in the table.
7. Give each group 4 set of containers of different sizes and shapes (apple juice bottle, oil bottle, teapot ,
    jug), a pail of water, measuring cylinders.
8. Each group will fill every container with water.They will measure the volume of liquid in each container by
    pouring the water from the containers into the measuring cylinders.
9. Pupils compare volume of liquid as below:
a. apple juice bottle and oil bottle
b. teapot and jug
10. A group leader will record the results in the table form given.
Containers
Volume of liquid ( litre)
a. Apple juice bottle

    Oil bottle

b. Teapot

    Jug



11. Pupils do exercises according for high achiever and low achiever pupils.

      Exercise 1: high achiever pupils





Exercise 2: low achiever pupils




Conclusion:
1.Volume of liquid can be measured by using measuring cylinder in units such milliliters and liter.
2.Pupils understanding the relationship between litre and mimilitre (1 liter = 1000 milliliter).

4.0 Conclusion

            Volume of liquid refers to the capacity of liquids in the containers.The learning of volume of liquid begins with concrete experience in realistic situations through measuring using both standard and non-standard units. The capacity of liquid in standard units are measured in millimitres(ml) and litres(l) in the metric system. While in non-standard units they are measured using various containers by stated the capacity wheather more or less. Materials from non-standard units are easier to obtain. It is good to give children experience with unfamiliar systems of measurement .
Teacher can display those collections of containers in a learning centre for students to explore capacity measurement. Every learning centre should have at least a standard graduated measuring cylinder in liters and millimeters. This is to enable the students to measure volume of liquids especially in standard units.

5.0 References

Liew,M.L.(2008).Multitest Question  Bank Mathematics Year 2.Malaysia:Pan Asia   
          Publications Sdn.Bhd.

Aw,L.S.(2008).My Mentor Temanku Mathematics Year 2.Malaysia:Penerbit Pan
          Earth Sdn.Bhd.

Lee,T.S.,Lean,K.F.and Azizah,B.H.T.(2003).Mathematics Year 2  
         Textbook. Malaysia:Hypersurf Corporation Sdn.Bhd.



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SK Gawang Empili, Simunjan, Sarawak, Malaysia